Your Questions About Carnitine

July 29, 2013

Sandy asks…

how does the l-carnitine facilitate the breakdown of fats in the body?

According to the article that I have read, one of the side effects that you can get from L-carnitine is increase in appetite. how was that?

guys please help me, this is for my term paper.. your answer will be highly appreciated.. thanks again.

admin answers:

Carnitine transports long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, so they can be broken down through β-oxidation to acetyl-CoA to obtain usable energy via the citric acid cycle. In some organisms such as fungi, the acetate is used in the glyoxylate cycle for gluconeogenesis and formation of carbohydrates.

Fatty acids must be activated before binding to the carnitine molecule to form acyl-carnitine. The free fatty acid in the cytosol is attached with a thioester bond to coenzyme A (CoA). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and driven to completion by inorganic pyrophosphatase.

The acyl group on CoA can now be transferred to carnitine and the resulting acyl-carnitine transported into the mitochondrial matrix. This occurs via a series of similar steps:

1. Acyl-CoA is conjugated to carnitine by carnitine acyltransferase I (palmitoyltransferase) located on the outer mitochondrial membrane

2.Acyl-carnitine is shuttled inside by a carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase

3.Acyl-carnitine is converted to acyl-CoA by carnitine acyltransferase II (palmitoyltransferase) located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. The liberated carnitine returns to the cytosol.
Human genetic disorders such as primary carnitine deficiency, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency, carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency and carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency affect different steps of this process.

Carnitine acyltransferase I undergoes allosteric inhibition as a result of malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis, to prevent futile cycling between β-oxidation and fatty acid synthesis.

Maria asks…

What can I do to improve my memory? URGENT AND SERIOUS PLEASE?

I’ve been struggling for years to improve my memory (to remember things I saw, ate, and especially, to remember chess moves (like playing 3 games at the same time and remember all moves in all three games after they are over). I’ve taken Max Factor expensive medicine – also L-Carnitine I bought at Wal Mart…. what can I do to improve my memory? Someone told me that food cooked in aluminum pans can affect memory – I’ve eaten food cooked in aluminum pan all my life. What can I do now to have a better memory?

admin answers:

You must connect emotional feelings to the events and the facts you need to remember. It’s a blessing and a curse. But, if you can make your self more emotional — more hypersensitive — your memory will improve. The amygdala (an almond-shaped structure deep within the limbic system of the brain) is intimately connected to both emotional-gatekeeping and memory. The limbic system is an evolutionarily “primitive” part of the brain, and is believed to control instincts and intense emotions such as “fight or flight”. The secret to having a good memory is to deliberately infuse emotional feelings into the events and “facts in life” that you want to remember.

Even a seemingly sterile telephone number could take on emotional meaning if you look for a pattern within the digits, and TRY to associate that pattern with something you recall from your emotional memories.

When I study or read a book, I try to “hear” the words on the page as a spoken voice filled with cadence, inflection, and passion — even if the topic is quite dry.

Thomas asks…

How do you take women ultra mega active?

I bought the women ultra mega active pack. It comes with seven pills. Do I take all seven or what should I do …it includes ..; two orange pills I’m allergic to sea food so NOOO , energy Enhancer, calcium 600 , l-carnitine and Class 1000

admin answers:


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