Your Questions About An Impaired Immune System

June 26, 2013
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Steven asks…

2. Why is smoking bad to the overall function of the Respiratory System? Explain your answer in a scholarly ma?

Why is smoking bad to the overall function of the Respiratory System? Explain your answer in a scholarly manner.

admin answers:

Smoking is especially bad for your respiratory system. When you smoke a cigarette, you inhale the smoke into your lungs. This means that your lungs are directly exposed to the 4,000 toxic substances in cigarette smoke. These substances can impair your lungs’ ability to function and interfere with the mechanisms that protect your lungs against disease.

One breath comprises a complete inhalation and exhalation. The lungs are never completely empty; there is always some air retained within. An adult normally takes 16 breaths per minute when awake and anything between six and eight when asleep. The chest cavity is a protective frame around the two lungs and heart. The internal movements around breathing contribute towards the health of the respiratory system. The quality of the air you breathe and the working of the associated, processing organs are affected by allergies, cold and flu viruses, bacterial infections and pneumonia. The condition of this vital system further deteriorates with smoking and pollution. No artificial structure or machines can ever replace the respiratory system.

The effects of smoking includes the introduction of tar particles into the respiratory system. This sticky substances not only stains the teeth and fingernails, but also leaves a residue on the delicate lung tissue. Carcinogen benzopyrene in tar is a cancer trigger. Although carbon monoxide is an odorless gas, it is fatal for inhalation because it replaces vital oxygen in the blood. Since it binds with hemoglobin faster and better than oxygen, the result is a reduced quantity of oxygen reaching important organs like the heart and brain.

Hydrogen cyanide is another toxic substance that enters the respiratory system through smoking. It damages the lung-clearance-system and facilitates the build up of hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides and oxidizing agents within the lungs. The reactive chemicals damage the blood vessels and the heart, leading towards heart disease and stroke. Tobacco also contains metals like cadmium and lead, which are carcinogenic in nature.

Smoking facts reveal that all these inhalants cause damage to the trachea, larynx and lung function. Long term effects include narrowing of the lung airways, increased risk of lung infection, high blood pressure, blood prone to clotting, increased risk of stroke, damage to the immune system and reduced bone density.

John asks…

Does sleep deprivation cause the endocrine system to become impaired?

Does the endocrine system influence immunity to illness etc?

admin answers:

- Sleep deprivation can result in many physiological effects and many of them are related to the endocrine system for example , Sleep deprivation will reduce Cortisol secretion the next day and will enhance the hypothalamus , pituitary and Adrenal glands secretion . However , it will suppress growth hormones .

- Yes .. The endocrine system can influence the immune system .. For example , during a period of raised Cortisol ( in stressful situations ) immune system cells disappear from the blood. The part of the immune system most sensitive to increased cortisol levels are the Natural Killer Cells. Immune system function will plummet.

Lizzie asks…

What organs or systems are affected by Parkinson’s disease and how are they affected?

I need a link to a website to varify your answer. This is for a research school project.

admin answers:

The trick to this question is to make sure that you identify all of the organs in the human body and they take a look at Parkinson’s disease symptoms to see how they correlate.

If you just google the answer you might have found Wrong Diagnosis near the top and their answer is incomplete as the only organ they identify is the brain.

So let’s take a quick look at symptoms from the motor to the non-motor and see which organs are affected.

Although I often go to the Mayo Clinic website or WebMD and suggest you do that at the links below because they have excellent explanations:

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/parkinsons-disease/DS00295/DSECTION=symptoms

http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/guide/parkinsons-disease-symptoms

I’ll start here at Medline Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000755.htm#Symptoms
And for a break, lets take the organs here because they have more links at this site

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm

Organs and Organ Systems:
Skin
Skeletal System composed of bones, cartilage, tendons & ligaments
Muscular system: skeletal and smooth muscles
Circulatory system: heart, blood vessels and blood
Nervous System: To relay electrical signals throughout
brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
Respiratory system: nose, trachea, lungs
Digestive system: Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, intestines
Excretory Syseem: Kidneys, ureters, badder, urethra
Endocrine System: pancreas, adrenal glands, etc
Reproductive system: testes, seminal vesicles, penis
ovaries, oviducts,uterus, vagina, mammary glands
Lymphatic/Immune System:
Lymph, nodes & vessels, white blood cells, T- and B- cells

Symptoms:
Automatic movements such as blinking, sweating – Brain
Constipation: Brain (because of muscle rigidity and Digestive organs – same reasons)
Difficulty starting or continuing movement: Brain but the eyes can also be involved to assist the way out of the freeze.
Impaired balance of walking: Brain, muscular and skeletal systems
(see this link to an interesting research abstract: http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/119/4/1115
Drooling:
Lack of facial expression:
Loss of small or fine hand movements:
Muscle aches (myalgia)
Problems with movement
Rigid or stiff muscles
Shaking, tremors
Shuffling gait: (part of muscle rigidity, lack of balance)
Slowed movements:
Slowed, quiet speech, monotone voice:
Stooped posture:
Fainting: (orthostatic hypotension – blood pressure)
Loss of muscle function or feeling:
Variations in heart rate:
Urinary problems
Sexual Dysfunction

Non-motor:
Anxiety, stress, tension
Dementia
Depression
Hallucinations (this is also a side effect of some meds)
Memory Loss
Loss of sense of smell/taste
Vision disorders
Sleep disorders
Seborrhea or seborrheic dermatitis:
Loss of cognitive skills:

You will notice that as the list of symptoms progressed, I did not include the organ. That you can do.

If you have questions you may contact me thru Yahoo or at Parkinson’s Focus Today:

http://parkinsonsfocustoday.blogspot.com/

there is a Contact Us in the right column – I’m pretty good at getting back a quick answer.

I think you have the tools you need and the way to continue to research the answers.

One last thing, don’t underestimate the effect that PD medications have in causing side effects. The liver is very vulnerable.

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