Monthly Archives: February 2013

Your Questions About An Impaired Immune System

February 9, 2013

Lisa asks…

Where are immune definciency disorders located in the body?

Like where is the chromosome (or maybe gene) generally located in the body for immune definciency disorders?

admin answers:

In your blood. Specifically your white blood cells, the ones that are called lymphocytes.

More information:
Congenital immunodeficiency disorders
Congenital immunodeficiency is present at the time of birth, and is the result of genetic defects. These immunodeficiency disorders are also called primary immunodeficiencies. Even though more than 70 different types of congenital immunodeficiency disorders have been identified, they rarely occur. About 50,000 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year. Congenital immunodeficiencies may occur as a result of defects in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or both. They also can occur in the innate immune system.
HUMORAL IMMUNITY DISORDERS. Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, a congenital immunodeficiency disorder. The defect results in a decrease or absence of B lymphocytes, and therefore a decreased ability to make antibodies. People with this disorder are particularly susceptible to infections of the throat, skin, middle ear, and lungs. It is seen only in males because it is caused by a genetic defect on the X chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, they always have the defect if the gene is present. Females can have the defective gene, but since they have two X chromosomes, there will be a normal gene on the other X chromosome to counter it. Women may pass the defective gene on to their male children.
B LYMPHOCYTE DEFICIENCIES. If there is an abnormality in either the development or function of B lymphocytes, the ability to make antibodies will be impaired. This allows the body to be susceptible to recurrent infections.
A type of B lymphocyte deficiency involves a group of disorders called selective immunoglobulin deficiency syndomes. Immunoglobulin is another name for antibody, and there are five different types of immunoglobulins (called IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, and IgE). The most common type of immunoglobulin deficiency is selective IgA deficiency, occurring in about one in every 500 white persons. The amounts of the other antibody types are normal. Some patients with selective IgA deficiency experience no symptoms, while others have occasional lung infections and diarrhea. In another immunoglobulin disorder, IgG and IgA antibodies are deficient and there is increased IgM. People with this disorder tend to get severe bacterial infections.
Common variable immunodeficiency is another type of B lymphocyte deficiency. In this disorder, the production of one or more of the immunoglobulin types is decreased and the antibody response to infections is impaired. It generally develops around the age of 10-20. The symptoms vary among affected people. Most people with this disorder have frequent infections, and some also will experience anemia and rheumatoid arthritis. Many people with common variable immunodeficiency develop cancer.
T LYMPHOCYTE DEFICIENCIES. Severe defects in the ability of T lymphocytes to mature results in impaired immune responses to infections with viruses, fungi, and certain types of bacteria. These infections are usually severe and can be fatal.
DiGeorge syndrome is a T lymphocyte deficiency that starts during fetal development and is the result of a deletion in a particular chromosome. Children with DiGeorge syndrome either do not have a thymus or have an underdeveloped thymus. Since the thymus is a major organ that directs the production of T-lymphocytes, these patients have very low numbers of T-lymphocytes. They are susceptible to recurrent infections, and usually have physical abnormalities as well. For example, they may have low-set ears, a small receding jawbone, and wide-spaced eyes. People with DiGeorge syndrome are particularly susceptible to viral and fungal infections.
In some cases, no treatment is required for DiGeorge syndrome because T lymphocyte production improves. Either an underdeveloped thymus begins to produce more T lymphocytes or organ sites other than the thymus compensate by producing more T lymphocytes.
COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCIES. Some types of immunodeficiency disorders affect both B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. For example, severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is caused by the defective development or function of these two types of lymphocytes. It results in impaired humoral and cellular immune responses. SCID usually is recognized during the first year of life. It tends to cause a fungal infection of the mouth (thrush), diarrhea, failure to thrive, and serious infections. If not treated with a bone marrow transplant, a person with SCID will generally die from infections before age two. In 2003, a report showed a new form of severe SCID with severe mutation of T receptor cells.
DISORDERS OF INNATE IMMUNITY. Disorders of innate immunity affect phagocytes or the complement system. These disorders also result in recurrent infections.

Richard asks…

What systems are affected by bronchitis?

I know that there is the respiratory system but my teacher says there are two more?

admin answers:

The immune system is responsible for producing the inflammatory response to whatever the causative agent is. Because gas exchange within the lungs is impaired by the inflamed bronchi, the heart has to work harder and blood vessels respond in order to keep tissues perfused with oxygen. So the respiratory system, immune system, and circulatory system are all affected.

Mark asks…

What vitamins, food are recommended to boost immune system?

Also interested in eating well, takin vitamins that are good for the brain, concentration, memory. I’ve heard of ginko balboa or something. what do you think?

admin answers:

To boost your immune system, I highly recommend esterC & marine beta carotene (algaes – spirulina, chlorella & dunaliella)

Fish oil is highly recommended for the brain and stabilizing moods. I would recommend kelp or iodine supplementation for the brain’s concentration & memory.

I don’t know anything about ginkgo biloba but this article from the national institute of health sounds very promising –

Ginkgo is used for the treatment of numerous conditions, many of which are under scientific investigation. Available evidence demonstrates ginkgo’s efficacy in the management of intermittent claudication, Alzheimer’s/multi-infarct dementia, and “cerebral insufficiency” (a syndrome thought to be secondary to atherosclerotic disease, characterized by impaired concentration, confusion, decreased physical performance, fatigue, headache, dizziness, depression, and anxiety).

Although not definitive, there is promising early evidence favoring the use of ginkgo for memory enhancement in healthy subjects

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Your Questions About An Impaired Use Of Language

February 8, 2013

Mary asks…

What does a political candidates body language represent?

What does the constant wink and a thumbs up mean in terms of body language?
I disagree I think it means more than you think. My personal feeling is it is patronizing. I just wanted to know what others think?

admin answers:

Perhaps they think they can engage the hearing impaired by doing bad sign language.

Nancy asks…

Do hearing impaired teens look different from normal kids?

Do the hearing impaired teens have alike features to each other due to the illness? What are some ways the teens act different from normal teens? Thanks in advance
I’m sorry, I don’t mean to offend anyone I just thought that maybe things were different. I just wanna know more about hearing impaired teens from actual people and not from google or anything like that. I don’t wanna read an entire website I just wanna hear from you guys. Maybe personal stories as well.

admin answers:

Whether or not their appearance is different is going to depend on the reason why they are hearing impaired, it is not necessarily due to an ‘illness’ as you put it. Their features are no more or less alike than the features of any other 2 teenagers you may come across. In the vast majority of cases, they are going to look exactly like any other teenager, with the difference that they might possibly have a small hearing aid or cochlea implant visible.

I have friends who have hearing impairments and they act exactly the same as any other teenager, and enjoy doing exactly the same things. The only differences are that sometimes their speech can sound a little ‘odd’ as they are not accustomed to hearing what words sound like, or they may choose to communicate in sign language rather than talking.

To the other answerers who have condemned you for asking the question: Admittedly it was not phrased in the most sensitive way, but how else are people meant to learn if they don’t ask?! Refusing to answer isn’t going to solve anything.

Hope this helps.

Ken asks…

How do I become a broadway sign language interpreter?

I really want to become one. I already have an associates degree in English. But I’m going to a university to get my masters degree in English and bachelors degree in American sign language. Do you think I need some theatre classes?


admin answers:

You should contact as they are the organization that provides access programs for the hearing impaired on Broadway. If you are not talking about Broadway, but national tours of Broadway shows or shows in other states, contact the specific theater.

This article about being an interpreter is extremely helpful – and yes, I do think theater classes would be a nice touch – you aren’t there to act, but to support the performance. A good interpreter can make or break the experienced for a patron. Http://

That being said, you do realize this is not a full time position and that you would need to work as an interpreter in other capacities and just do this on the side. Most regional or touring theaters only offer one signed performance per shows stay in the theater. And on Broadway, it is even less because the money is there for open captioning and other options.

For example, if you check the upcoming shows that are going to have accessible performances, there are only NINE performances scheduled between now and September, and only one of those is signed – the rest are OC (or audio described, for the vision impaired)

You can see their list here for New York –
And here for regional (each region supplies their own) –

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Your Questions About An Impaired Use Of Language

February 7, 2013

Mark asks…

Is it good idea for a hearing impaired person to study in journalism?

I am very interested to take up the journalism course but i am worried about my hearing impairment. I noticed that the courses that are related to the journalism require the oral language. Will i face the critical point of the communication and the understanding in the journalism sector? I am wondering what the journalist career does not require the non-electronic communication.

I am trying to build my career at my age. Please kindly advise. Thank you very much.

admin answers:

Absolutely not. Quite often meaning is derived from –not WHAT a person says, but HOW they say it. Inflection in voices can make someone happy or angry. Oral language is the key. Why risk not being able to discern a subtlety when a person says “uh-huh” meaning yes?

Being hearing impared means a point could be misconstrued or lost entirely because the human voice makes distinctions between words, phrases and ACCENTS.

Same result on paper unless you pickup on the inferences and details of this example:
“Did you break that window?” …Long pause… “No.”
“Did you break that window?” directly following shouting in anger “No.”

I’m not sure of any capacity where a journalist does not require some kind of oral interpretation. I do think your skills could be useful when viewing crimes being committed like on closed circuit cameras in convenience stores and banks. You would probably be able to pickup details based solely on superior visual perceptions.

James asks…

What’s the difference between english subtitles & closed captioned for the hearing impaired?

When I’m watching a DVD & need to use subtitles (cause it’s during a family gathering and we can’t always hear what’s going on) – In the language menu I have noticed that with many DVD’s both options are available. What’s the difference?

admin answers:

Big difference! English subtitles help when the movie can or is played in another language, (let’s say, Italian), it can allow people from 2 different linguistic backgrounds to watch the same movie at the same time.

Closed Captioning for the hearing impaired is the transcripts of the movie, which, could be identical to English Subtitles, but English Subtitles aren’t closed captioning. (lol, one of those “a tadpole is a frog but a frog isn’t a tadpole” kind of answers) :)

Donald asks…

Are there different versions of sign languages that correspond with different spoken languages?

Do all spoken languages have a sighn language counterpart. Can you please cite examples of those that do and do not?

admin answers:

Signing is a universal phenomenon, but ASL is not. There is no universal Sign Language.

Signed languages are not necessarily counterparts of spoken languages.

For example, contrary to common belief, ASL is an autonomous, bonafide language that is neither a form of, nor based on, English. It has, and requires in order to work, its own very unique system of grammar which has almost nothing in common with that of English. We use many English words, but we don’t organize them or apply them as you do.


English– I haven’t been to the bakery in six weeks.
ASL– SINCE 6-WEEK STORE BREAD TOUCH-negative headshake

American Sign Language is called “American” because it is used on American soil– not because it is affiliated with English. It is actually derived from Old French.

There is no such thing as “English Sign Language”. Many novices merge ASL Signs with English grammar in the mistaken belief that this is ASL. It isn’t. This, such as you see in the movies and on television, isn’t a language. It is akin to “broken English”. (It doesn’t deserve a legitimate name, as it is counterfeit, but versions of this are called “signed English” [SE, SEE *, SEE1 *, SEE2 *], manually coded English [MCE *, ME *, MCE1 *, MCE2 *], SSS *, LOVE *, contact Sign, pidgin, or what it really is– gibberish.) This spurious approach lacks ASL grammar, obscuring logic, which renders it only marginally understandable. A great many Deafs hold this SE practice in contempt as they don’t want their cherished language, their birthright, to be compromised or butchered. Some Deafs are willing to “code switch”, using any of these simplese hybrids, when speaking to Hearing people– whom they deem to be “ASL impaired”.

ASL is highly regional. There are countless dialects and idiolects. Every region has at least some local peculiarities. There can be great Signing differences within any given twenty mile radius. There are also Signing variations along the lines of culture (Hearing affiliation or lack thereof), education, occupation, religion, age, and socio-economics.

Globally, there are hundreds of Signed languages and many dubious signed “codes”. (See the attached for a list and a map.) They often propagate via Deaf schools or the work of missionaries and/or imported teachers, so they are not always dictated by geographic boundaries.

Africa has areas that use versions of ASL. Jamaican Sign Language (JSL) is considered by many to be a dialect of ASL. ASL and Puerto Rican Sign Language, PSL (sometimes PRSL), are two distinct languages which have grown apart over time.

British Signers use BSL. It is wholly different than ASL– right down to the alphabet. (Ours is one-handed; theirs is two-.) ASL and BSL are not mutually intelligible. (Proving that neither is a version of English.) I have noticed instances where a Sign means one thing to them and something compleatly unrelated to us.

Residents of France use (la) Langue des Signes Française– properly abbreviated LSF. (Americans are inclined to Anglicize and refer to this as FSL– which is a misnomer. [Some people incorrectly use "le" and the spelling "Français"-- without the "e". That is because the word "langue", in French, to mean language, is feminine, and the word "langue", to mean "tongue", is masculine.]) Swiss-French Sign Language is called Langage Gestuelle. Other French Sign Languages, used in other parts of the world, have other names.

Italians use Lingua dei Segni Italiana. (Properly abbreviated LSI– not ISL.) Australians use Auslan. Norwegians use Tegnspråk– NSL. Germans use what Americans would call GSL or DGS. (Rightly, it is Gebärdensprache.) There are many Spanish Sign Languages. And so on.

For years, scholars have been developing Gestuno– ISL. (This acronym is a misnomer as Gestuno is not a language, with its own system of grammar, but a “code”.) It will never have any degree of acceptance among Deafs here in the U.S. It certainly will never eclipse ASL! Deaf people do not want to have their beloved ASL compromised or replaced. ASL is the one thing that has been developed by, and belongs to, Deafs. It is a language, but it is also entwined with Deaf culture. Deafs guard anything related to their culture fiercely.

I don’t know anyone who knows any Gestuno.

I am Deaf, a native ASL user of more than 35 years, an ASL teacher and tutour, and the authour of educational media.

* Routinely used, though an abysmal failure, in mainstream grammar schools.

© 2000 – 2012 ASLMatters, inc. All rights are reserved. Copying this material is prohibited without express written permission of the authour. Contact the webmaster at ASL360™ is a trademark of ASLMatters, inc.

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Your Questions About An Impaired Use Of Language Is Known As

February 6, 2013

Sandy asks…

What exactly is a social heirarchy in the disabled community?

I’ve been hearing so much about a heirarchy. Like I know part of the heiarchy is that the “milder” people or the ones that seem the most normal are supposed to be on top but is there more to it?

admin answers:

Crip Caste – Owning Up to the Pecking Order and Prejudice Within the Disability Community

My Spin: A Disability Hierarchy?


Disability Hierarchies

The website gives a chart of a Disability Hierarchy
1. Wheelchair Users (At the top of the Disability Hierarchy)
2. Quads and Parapalegics
3. Amputees
4. Vision Impaired and Hearing Impaired
5. Neurodiverse
6. Cognitvely Challenged
7. Mentally Ill
8. Others… (At the bottom of the Disability Hierarchy)

(This Disability Hierarchy was formulated by PWDs.)

BADD – How Disability Hierarchy Hurts Transabled People

BADD = Blogging Against Disablism Day

Deciding Who’s Legitimate

The Disability Hierarchy

The Disability Hierarchy Is A Pain

Pyjama Girl And The Disability Hierarchy

The Hierarchy Of Disability – Let Me Tell You …

Identity Crisis: The Canadian Disability Movement’s Contribution To The Hierarchy Of Impairment

Mainstreaming Disabilty Issues Into Development Studies – In Theory And In Practice

(Article does mentions a “social hierarchy of impairment”.)

Creating Inclusive Disability Communities

Speech-Language Pathology/Stuttering/Support Groups

(At the bottom of the article it has a section called “The Disability Hierarchy”.

In the book titled “Nothing About Us Without Us – Disability Oppression And Empowerment”, written by James I. Charlton, pages 97 to 99, it talks about “The Hierarchy Of Disability”. It mentions that people with physical Disabilities and visual Disabilities are at the top, people with hearing Disabilities are in the middle, and people with mental Disabilities and those who are perceived of having mental Disabilities are at the bottom.


I came across another Disability Hierarchy which is down below.

1. People with mild physical disabilities that are easily overlooked by the general public. (At the top of the Disability Hierarchy)
2. People with more visible physical and sensory disabilities (paraplegia, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, etc.).
3. People with developmental disabilities.
4. People with mental illness (At the bottom of the Disability Hierarchy)

(This Disability Hierarchy was formulated by Non-PWDs (Outsiders).

The last four weblinks deals with Invisible Disabilities and how some people with Invisible Disabilities dealt in encountering discrimination due to a Disability Hierarchy.

The Invisible Disabilities Page

Invisible Disabilities: FAQ List and Essay

Guest Essay: “Coming Home To Disabled Country”

A Hard Look at Invisible Disability

As you can see there is a Social Pecking Order (Social Heirarchy) that does exist within the PWD Community.

A Social Pecking Order (Social Heirarchy) that comes from within the PWD Community to put it in a nutshell is “Which PWD is more Disabled than another PWD”. The more Disabled you are, then you are placed higher (higher status) on the PWD Community’s Disability Hierarchy by various PWDs.

Whereas a Social Pecking Order (Social Heirarchy) that comes from the Non-PWD (Outsider) Community which is the less Disabled you are, then you are placed higher (higher status) on the Non-PWD (Outsider) Community’s Disability Hierarchy by Non-PWDs (Outsiders).

David asks…

How to get involved with the deaf community?

I’m really interested in sign language and i’m trying to learn it. I’m also really just fascinated by the deaf culture for some reason, and i think i might want to major in deaf studies. What kind of jobs out there deal specifically with the Deaf, and how can i get involved in my own community right now(what could i do)?

admin answers:

I know what you mean about being apart of the deaf community. Since taking a basic sign language class last fall, I had an interest working or volunteering with the deaf community. Actually last week I was at my local YMCA (community health club) There was a group of different kinds of adults with disabilities. One of the clients they had was deaf. He was go glad that someone was able to understand him or try to communicate with him. Apparently the worker who was taking care of him didn’t know any sign language.

-sometimes there is a pizza social at our local pizza shops for the deaf community to get together. All is welcome.
-local human service agencies often look for deaf volunteers to socialize with their clients who are hearing impaired.
-my local mental health clinic is always looking for deaf interrupters and mental therapists who can do cognitive therapy with the deaf clients.
-sometimes special education classes need a deaf aid in the classroom

William asks…

What would happen, hypothetically, if a human infant was born and developed without any human contact?

If this baby was isolated

I know human beings are dependent at a very young age, but I still wonder, would the baby die? When? How? WhY?
Lets say the baby has access to food and water in this “room”

Does it know how to feed itself?
Interesting I guess we “know” more than we think because most of what we are is learned behavior.
Thanks Nerg I figured that just wanted to make sure.

admin answers:

Those would be called feral children.


It happens, and they usually don’t turn out well.

“In reality, feral children lack the basic social skills which are normally learned in the process of enculturation. For example, they may be unable to learn to use a toilet, have trouble learning to walk upright and display a complete lack of interest in the human activity around them. They often seem mentally impaired and have almost insurmountable trouble learning a human language. The impaired ability to learn language after having been isolated for so many years is often attributed to the existence of a critical period for language learning, and taken as evidence in favor of the critical period hypothesis.”

In most of the cases that I’ve researched in the past, children who were brought up in complete isolation typically died before they reach 13 years.

Yes, they should know how to feed themselves. It’s such a basic instinct for any animal. Of course that depends entirely on the age of the child. If it’s under 12 months it would most likely die very quickly if left isolated like that. Human interaction is critical for infants.

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Your Questions About Google

February 5, 2013

Sandy asks…

How did Google start making their money before Google went public 2005?

Just tell how Google got enough money to buy youtube and how the two owner became billionaires?

Thanks for your help.

admin answers:

Before Google went public, they got loads of money from venture capitalists and investors — $25 million round from Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins in 1999,

Adwords was launched in Oct 2000. Their content network, Adsense was launched in 2003.

John asks…

When is google street view UK going to put up the rest of the pictures?

We saw the google car near our house in Manchester last October, but on google street view, you can’t see our house! They’ve only put up the pictures for some of Manchester.

When are they planning on filling in the gaps?

admin answers:

I think all the photos have been taken and put up. There are gaps between various photos but thats how its meant to be I think as the photos are taken every few metres apart or so. Its probably irrelevant anyway because none of the photos will be left because of certain people who have no life and think its ‘invading’ their piracy, sad I think. And I live in Manchester too :D

Jenny asks…

How do you add google adsense ads to your youtube video page?

How do you add google adsense text links to your youtube video page? I understand the google video units are just attached to the video itself, but how can you add the actual google text links to the page also?

admin answers:

When using Google Adsense with YouTube, you post the code Google provides to a separate web page… You won’t be able to post the Adsense code onto your YouTube profile/channel… You would need to become a YouTube partner to get the ads show up in your videos… If you want to make google adsense money check out

It will teach you how to make 1k , Check it out, you will be making a full income online in no time

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